Chinese scientists and engineers have chalked up some outstanding achievements since 2011. In basic research, frontier discoveries include the quantum anomalous Hall effect, high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based materials, a new kind of neutrino oscillation, a method of inducing pluripotent stem cells and the crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1. In the area of strategic high technology, the Shenzhou space program has pursued inhabited space flights. The first Chinese spacewalk dates from 2008. In 2012, the Tiangong-1 space module docked in space for the first time, allowing the first woman taikongnaut to go for a spacewalk. In December, 2013, Chang’e 3 became the first spacecraft to land on the Moon since the Soviet Union’s craft in 1976. China has also made breakthroughs in deep-ground drilling and supercomputing. China’s first large passenger aircraft, the ARJ21-700 with a capacity for 95 passengers, was certified by the national Civil Aviation Administration on December 30, 2014.
A number of major gaps in technology and equipment have been filled in recent years, especially in information and communication technologies (ICTs), energy, environmental protection, advanced manufacturing, biotechnology and other strategic emerging industries for China. Large facilities such as the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (est. 1991), Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (est. 2009) and Daya Bay neutrino oscillation facility have not only yielded significant findings in basic science but also provided opportunities for international collaboration. The Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment, for example, which began collecting data in 2011, is being led by Chinese and American scientists, with participants from the Russian Federation and other countries.
-- UNESCO science report 2015