Transportation

Railway

By the end of 2006, the operation mileage of railways in China had reached 77,083.8km, ranking the first in Asia.

In 2006, the passenger and cargo transport volume, transport revenue and main indicators in transportation of the railway in the whole country all set new historical high following large magnitude growth in three successive years. The passenger turnover, cargo transport volume, converted turnover and transport density all rank the first in the world, handling about one-fourth of the total converted turnover of world railways with 6 percent of the operation mileage of the world railways.

The railway system completed capital construction investment of 154.25 billion yuan during the whole year, up 75.2 percent than the previous year. This included 130.092 billion yuan from the Ministry of Railway, at 98.1 percent of the annual plan, up 75.0 percent than the previous year. The capital construction investment amount exceeded 150 billion yuan for the first time, 66.232 billion yuan more than that of 2005 (88.018 billion yuan), the previous highest in history.

There are 119 large-and-medium sized railway projects under construction by the state or in joint venture, with fulfilled investment of 150.72 billion yuan (34.285 billion yuan for double-track lines and expansion projects, 9.219 billion yuan for electrification, 11.099 billion yuan for junctures and passenger terminals, and 96.118 billion yuan for new railway lines), up 80.6 percent than the previous year. This included investment of 128.154 billion yuan completed by the Ministry of Railway, being 87.7 percent of the annual plan, up 79.4 percent than the previous year. Tracks were laid for 868.8 km as new lines and 1,145.3 km as double-track lines, and railways were put into operation for 1,490.9 km as new lines and 816.4 km as double-track lines. 3,921.2 km of electrified railways were put into service, including 3,807.7km for electrification renovation on existing railways, being 1.5 times that of the "Tenth Five-year Plan" period.

Investment of local railways was fulfilled at 1.592 billion yuan, down 5.3 percent than the previous year. This included 70.5km as newly laid tracks and 156.7 km as new lines put into operation.

Highway

The total volume of highways grew continuously. To obtain accurate and overall information of the highway network in the whole country, the Ministry of Communications organized a special survey of the rural highways in the whole country in 2005, and determined the statistic standard of rural highways on this basis. Since 2006, village roads have been incorporated in the statistic mileages of highways (for comparison on the same basis, the data of special survey and statistic standards are attached). By the end of 2006, the total mileage of highways in the whole country had reached 3,457,000 km, 111,800km more over the end of previous year (on the same basis, the same for below). The network structure was further improved. In the total mileage of highways in the whole country, there were 133,400 km of national highways, 239,600 km of provincial highways, 506,500 km of county roads, 987,600 km of township roads, 58,000 km of dedicated highways, and 1,532,000 km of village roads.

The highway density in the whole country was 36.0 km/100 km2, 1.2km/100km2 more over the end of previous year. The total number of townships (towns) accessible via highway in the whole country accounted for 98.3 percent of the total, and the total number of established villages accessible via highway in the whole country accounted for 86.4% of the total. There were still 672 townships and towns and 89,975 established villages not accessible via highway.

By the end of 2006, the total mileage of rural highways in the whole country (including county, township and village roads) had reached 3,026,100 km, 110,800 km more over the end of previous year. There were 16 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities each with rural highway mileage exceeding 100,000km.

Waterway

By the end of 2006, the navigable mileage of inland river channels in the whole country had reached 123,400 km. They included classified channels of 61,000 km, accounting for 49.5 percent of the total mileage; channels of Class III and above of 8,687 km, accounting for 7.0 percent of the total mileage; channels of Class V and above of 24,039 km, accounting for 9.5 percent of the total mileage. The navigable mileage of inland river channels of different classes was: Class I channel of 1,407 km、Class II channel of 2,538 km、Class III channel of 4,742 km、Class IV channel of 6,768 km、Class V channel of 8,584 km、Class VI channel of 18,407 km, and Class VII channel of 18,589 km. The inland river channels in the country included natural and canalized rivers of 64,526 km, restricted channels of 36,156 km, wide and shallow river channels of 6,130 km, channels in mountainous torrential rivers of 4,311km, lake area channels of 3,462 km and channels in reservoir area of 8,804 km. In the whole country, there were four provinces in the country each with navigable mileage of inland river channels exceeding 10,000 km, respectively Jiangsu (24,347 km), Guangdong (11,844 km), Hunan (11,495 km) and Sichuan (10,720 km).

By the end of 2006, there had been a total of 4,142 junctures on the inland river channels in the whole country, including 2,339 with navigation functions. The navigation structures included 833 ship gates and 42 ship lifts.

By the end of 2006, there had been a total of 35,453 operating jetty berths, a net increase of 211 over the previous year. They included 1,203 berths of 10,000t Class and above, a net increase of 169 over the previous year.

The coastal harbors in the country had 4,511 operating berths, including 978 berths of 10,000t class and over; the inland river harbors had 30,942 operating berths, including 225 berths of 10,000t class and over. The 10,000t class inland river harbor berths were distributed along the trunk course of Yangtze River, the Beijing – Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Pearl River water system, respectively 216, 5 and 4.

Aviation

In 2007, the industry fulfilled a total cargo turnover of 36.53 billion t-km and passenger turnover of 27.917 billion person-km, with person times transport volume of 190 million, and cargo and mail turnover of 11.64 billion t-km, with cargo and mail transport volume of 4.019 million, a respective growth of 19.5 percent, 17.8 percent, 16.3 percent, 23.5 percent and 15.0 percent.

Large aviation companies fulfilled a total turnover of 29.65 billion t-km, a growth of 13.7 percent, accounting for 81.2 percent of the whole industry, down 4.1 percentage points than the previous year; medium-sized aviation companies fulfilled a total turnover of 5.03 billion t-km, a growth of 28.4 percent, accounting for 13.8 percent of the whole industry, a growth of 1.0 percentage points over the previous year; and small aviation companies fulfilled a total turnover of 1.85 billion t-km, a growth of 216.9 percent, accounting for 5.1 percent of the whole industry, a growth of 3.2 percentage points over the previous year (note: as classified by number of passengers transported annually, those with over 10 million person times are large aviation companies, those with 5 to 10 million person times are medium-sized companies, and those with less than 5 million person times are small companies).

All airports in the country handled a total throughput of 388 million person times and 8.611 million tons of cargo and mails, growing respectively by 16.8 percent and 14.3 percent. There were 10 airports in the country each with annual person time throughput of 10 million. Among them, Beijing Capital International Airport had an annual person time throughput of 53.6117 million, ranking the 9th among all airports in the world (source: ACI website); the person time throughput of Xiaoshan of Hangzhou, Xianyang of Xi’an and Jiangbei of Chongqing respectively exceeded 10 million for the first time.

In 2007, about 4.43 million landings and takeoffs were guaranteed in the whole year, a growth of 16.5 percent.

City Transport

Taxi: Taxis are a convenient means of transportation in various cities in China. Simply raise your hand, and a taxi appears in no time. But you'd better choose a taxi with a business permit, and before you disembark from a taxi ride, ask the driver for a receipt.

Subway: Subways are another convenient means of transportation for those traveling in downtown. So far subways are available in four Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Tianjin.

Bicycle: There are bicycles for rent in some hotels in Beijing and some other tourist cities. Riding old-fashioned Pedi cabs for a tour of Beijing's hutongs and back alleys

(Note: Data for railway were taken from the briefs of railway of 2006 published by the Ministry of Railway; the data of highway and water way were taken from the annual report 2007 of the Ministry of Communications; and the data of civil aviation were taken from the development report of China civil aviation transport of CAAC (2007/2008))

(Source: en.cnta.gov.cn)